|Title||Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Authors||Mueller, GM, Smicht, JP, Ryvarden, SMHubndorf L, O'Dell, TE, Lodge, DJ, Leacock, PR, Mata, M, Umania, L, Wu, Q, Czederpiltz, DL|
|Editor||Mueller, GM, Bills, GF, Foster, MS|
|Book Title||Biodiversity of fungi: inventory and monitoring methods.|
|Publisher||Elsevier Academic Press|
The material in this chapter is intended to provide investigators with some direction in planning and conducting inventories of macrofungi. We hope that the recent growth of such studies will continue and be nurtured by the information that we have provided. In particular, we emphasize the need for wellplanned research with clearly stated goals. Monitoring of fungi is a more recent undertaking that may be useful in detecting anthropogenic disturbances, such as air pollution, and quantifying their impacts. Project planning should include background literature research on the vegetation and geology of the study area, as well as on the taxa of fungi likely to be encountered. Pilot studies or preliminary sampling of the fungi are useful in determining the intensity of sampling required to achieve the goals of the survey. Such studies also will provide insight into the numbers of specimens likely to be acquired and the taxonomic difficulty of the project. Executing the project involves careful collection of specimens; documentation of the resulting specimens with written descriptions, photographs, spore prints, cultures, and macrochemical tests; preservation of specimens; and archiving of voucher specimens and data in recognized herbaria. The processing of large numbers of specimens involves some prioritization because not all specimens are equally ephemeral or useful. Data analyses can include extrapolation of site richness from samples and complementarity tests to evaluate sampling efficiency. Use of the sampling protocols recommended in this chapter will yield standardized data on the diversity of macrofungi found fruiting on soil, leaf litter, and woody substrata comparable to data from equivalent studies at other times or sites. Nevertheless, research on sampling design remains a priority for improving sampling efficiency at all stages of the study and the quality of the data obtained. At present, the greatest constraints on studies of macrofungal diversity are the paucity of fungal taxonomists and identification resources. No region of theworld as yet has a complete mycota equivalent to a vascular plant flora, a condition likely to persist for some time. We must not let that obstacle prevent us from carrying out inventories, but it is a limitation that we should strive to overcome.