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Permanent plot data is expected to show these temporal patterns: (1) rapid increases in percent cover and tree stem density, and (2) rapid turnover from early to late successional plant species. Plant-plant competition should show quick increases in intensity with native grass species and exotics as top competitors. These may lead to exclusion of some trees common after landslide disturbance. Spatial patterns of invading trees should include edge effects due to dispersal limitation with clumping of bird-dispersed species before the first five years after cow exclusion. Because of intact soil and low vegetation trees should grow, as measured by biomass(productivity), height, and basal diameter increases, significantly faster compared to colonization of landslides.