In each of the five non-destructive (plant) subplots, one 1 x 3.5 m measurement area was established at a random location that was at least 75% boulder-free to measure seedlings (all vascular life forms <1 cm dbh at 1.3 m height). We identify each seedling to species, including trees, shrubs, herbs, vines, palms, orchids, and ferns. Seedlings ≥10 cm tall received a permanent tag, and height and diameter (measured above the root crown) was measured. Seedlings ≤10 cm were identified to species (if possible), counted, and this number was recorded, but were not tagged. Plot cover and litter depth were also measured in the 1 x 3.5 m area. Cover categories included: litter, rock, bare soil, live trunk, dead trunk, and grass. Canopy photographs were taken with a Nikon Coolpix 4500 camera at 1 m height above, and in the center, of each seedling plot, as well as the corners and center of each 20 x 20 m plot. Photos were analyzed using Gap Light Analyzer, Version 2. Canopy cover and an index of light for each photo were determined.